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The find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the primaries specified below. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for the link itself. File information for all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself.

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man command in Linux with Examples

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The find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the primaries specified below. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for the link itself. File information for all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H and -L is not considered an error. The last option specified determines the behavior of the utility. The first argument that starts with a - , or is a! True if the file was accessed n days ago. The access time of directories in path is changed by find itself. Always true.

Writes the current file on device in cpio format byte records. Causes descent of the directory hierarchy to be done so that all entries in a directory are acted on before the directory itself. This can be useful when find is used with cpio 1 to transfer files that are contained in directories without write permission.

True if the executed command returns a zero value as exit status. The end of command must be punctuated by an escaped semicolon ;. If any invocation of the command returns a non-zero value as exit status, find returns a non-zero exit status. Always true and always evaluated no matter where it appears in expression. The behavior is unspecified if -follow is used when the find command is invoked with either the -H or the -L option.

Causes symbolic links to be followed. When following symbolic links, find keeps track of the directories visited so that it can detect infinite loops. For example, such a loop would occur if a symbolic link pointed to an ancestor. This expression should not be used with the find-type l expression. True if the file belongs to the group gname. If gname is numeric and does not appear in the group 4 database, it is taken as a group ID.

Similar to -name , but the match between the pattern and the base name of the current file name is case insensitive. Unlike the -name option, there is no special treatment in leading period and wildcard file name generation characters can match file names beginning with a. The -local option descends the hierarchy of non-local directories. Prints current pathname together with its associated statistics. These include respectively :.

If the file is a special file, the size field instead contains the major and minor device numbers. The format is identical to that of ls -gilds see ls 1B. Restricts the search to the file system containing the directory specified. Does not list mount points to other file systems. True if pattern matches the basename of the current file name. Normal shell file name generation characters see sh 1 can be used. The pattern should be escaped or quoted when find is invoked from the shell.

Unless the character '. Writes the current file on device in cpio -c format byte records. True if the file belongs to a group not in the group 4 database. True if the file belongs to a user not in the passwd 4 database. Like -exec , except that the generated command line is printed with a question mark first, and is executed only if the response is affirmative.

The mode argument is used to represent file mode bits. To start, a template is assumed with all file mode bits cleared. An op symbol of:. Set the appropriate mode bits, without regard to the contents of the file mode creation mask of the process. The op symbol of - cannot be the first character of mode , to avoid ambiguity with the optional leading hyphen. Since the initial mode is all bits off, there are no symbolic modes that need to use - as the first character.

If the hyphen is omitted, the primary evaluates as true when the file permission bits exactly match the value of the resulting template. Otherwise, if mode is prefixed by a hyphen, the primary evaluates as true if at least all the bits in the resulting template are set in the file permission bits. True if the file permission flags exactly match the octal number onum see chmod 1.

If onum is prefixed by a minus sign - , only the bits that are set in onum are compared with the file permission flags, and the expression evaluates true if they match. This allows file names that contain NEWLINEs or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.

This option corresponds to the -0 option of cpio and xargs. Always yields true. Does not examine any directories or files in the directory structure below the pattern just matched.

If -depth is specified, -prune has no effect. True if the file is n blocks long bytes per block. If n is followed by a c , the size is in bytes.

True if the type of the file is c , where c is b , c , d , D , f , l , p , or s for block special file, character special file, directory, door, plain file, symbolic link, fifo named pipe , or socket, respectively.

True if the file belongs to the user uname. If uname is numeric and does not appear as a login name in the passwd 4 database, it is taken as a user ID. True if the parenthesized expression is true parentheses are special to the shell and must be escaped. Concatenation of primaries the and operation is implied by the juxtaposition of two primaries. When you use find in conjunction with cpio , if you use the -L option with cpio , you must use the -L option or the -follow primitive with find and vice versa.

Otherwise the results are unspecified. If no expression is present, -print is used as the expression. Otherwise, if the specified expression does not contain any of the primaries -exec , -ok , -ls , or -print , the specified expression is effectively replaced by:.

The -user , -group , and -newer primaries each evaluate their respective arguments only once. Invocation of command specified by -exec or -ok does not affect subsequent primaries on the same file.

See largefile 5 for the description of the behavior of find when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte 2 31 bytes.

The following comand removes all files in your home directory named a. The following command recursively print all file names in the current directory and below, but skipping SCCS directories:.

Recursively print all file names in the current directory and below, skipping the contents of SCCS directories, but printing out the SCCS directory name:. The following command is basically equivalent to the -nt extension to test 1 :. For example, a file accessed at is selected by:. The midnight boundary between days has no effect on the hour calculation.

The following command recursively print all file names whose permission mode exactly matches read, write, and execute access for user, and read and execute access for group and other:. The following command recursively print all file names whose permission includes, but is not limited to, write access for other:. The following example finds all file names with an extension of. PDF ,. Pdf , and so forth. See locale 5. See attributes 5 for descriptions of the following attributes:. Writes the current file on device in cpio -c format —byte records.

When using find to determine files modified within a range of time, use the -mtime argument before the -print argument. Otherwise, find gives all files. Some files that might be under the Solaris root file system are actually mount points for virtual file systems, such as mntfs or namefs. When comparing against a ufs file system, such files are not selected if -mount or -xdev is specified in the find expression.

Using the -L or -follow option is not recommended when descending a file-system hierarchy that is under the control of other users. In particular, when using -exec , symbolic links can lead the find command out of the hierarchy in which it started.

Using -type is not sufficient to restrict the type of files on which the -exec command operates, because there is an inherent race condition between the type-check performed by the find command and the time the executed command operates on the file argument. Search Scope:. Options The following options are supported: -H Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself.

Operands The following operands are supported: path A pathname of a starting point in the directory hierarchy. These include respectively : inode number size in kilobytes bytes protection mode number of hard links user group size in bytes modification time. Formatting is done internally, without executing the ls program.

Causes the current pathname to be printed. Complex Expressions The primaries can be combined using the following operators in order of decreasing precedence : 1 expression True if the parenthesized expression is true parentheses are special to the shell and must be escaped.

Linux and Unix find command tutorial with examples

To use the find command, at the Unix prompt, enter:. Leave the double quotes in. The find command will begin looking in the starting directory you specify and proceed to search through all accessible subdirectories. You may specify more than one starting directory for searching.

While they're not all well-advertised, there are actually a variety of means of getting help under Unix. Man pages correspond to online manuals for programs, file formats, functions, system calls, and so forth.

The Linux find command is very powerful. It can search the entire filesystem to find files and directories according to the search criteria you specify. Besides using the find command to locate files, you can also use it to execute other Linux commands grep , mv , rm , etc. If you just want to see some examples and skip the reading, here are a little more than thirty find command examples to get you started.

Basic UNIX commands

This file documents the GNU utilities for finding files that match certain criteria and performing various operations on them. This file documents the GNU utilities for finding files that match certain criteria and performing various actions on them. This manual shows how to find files that meet criteria you specify, and how to perform various actions on the files that you find. The principal programs that you use to perform these tasks are find , locate , and xargs. Some of the examples in this manual use capabilities specific to the GNU versions of those programs. Many other people have contributed bug fixes, small improvements, and helpful suggestions. Reporting bugs this way means that you will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem. The mailing list bug-findutils gnu. To join the list, send email to bug-findutils-request gnu.

Use the Unix find command to search for files

Search a folder hierarchy for filename s that meet a desired criteria: Name, Size, File Type - see examples. GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see Operators , until the outcome is known the left hand side is false for AND operations, true for OR , at which point find moves on to the next file name. The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links. That argument and any following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched for.

In the absence of an expression, -print is assumed. If an expression is given, but none of the primaries -delete , -exec , -execdir , -ls , -ok , -print , or -print0 are specified, the given expression is effectively replaced by given expression -print.

Section-num : Since a manual is divided into multiple sections so this option is used to display only a specific section of a manual. So this option gives the section in which the given command is present. In this example you can move through the manual pages sections i.

find(1) - Linux man page

On Unix-like operating systems, the find command searches for files and directories in a file system. Within each directory tree specified by the given path s, it evaluates the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see " Operators ", below until the outcome is known. At that point find moves on to the next path until all path s have been searched. It can be used on its own to locate files, or in conjunction with other programs to perform operations on those files.

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By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I'm working on a lab that is supposed to help us better navigate the command line on a Linux system, but I'm getting stuck on man pages. We are supposed to use the man command to find a list of the man page sections, adn I can't seem to figure out how to do this. I've tried entering. I've also tried looking on Google to find what command I should use, but no luck there either.

Finding Files

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. Pay attention to the section number: Suppose you want help on printf. The bash version of printf is in section 1, the C version is in section 3 or 3C. If you don't know which one you want, type man -a printf , and all manual pages will be displayed. You may find something like formats 5 , which suggests you to type man 5 formats. If you are annoyed that man printf gives you printf 1 and all you want is printf 3 , you have to change the order of scanned directories in the MANPATH environment variable and put the ones for C language before the ones for shell commands. This gives you a summary of commands of requested section.

Check out the man pages if this sounds good to you. About other people. w tells you who's logged in, and what they're doing. Especially useful: the 'idle'.

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